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Validation of the Perceived Self-efficacy Scale (PSE) Among Cassava Farmers in Tanzania

Joel Matiku Joshua, Fatihiya Ally Massawe, Amani Angumbwike Mwakalapuka


This paper validated the Perceived Self-Efficacy (PSE) scale as a measurement tool for farmers’ self-efficacy. From the social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is the key determinant of many social-cognitive behaviours, including the adoption of farming technologies. In this paper, PSE was adopted and tested in a two-stage study among cassava farmers in Mara, Mwanza, and Kagera regions of Tanzania. In the first stage, 200 respondents in Serengeti District of Mara region were exposed to the 13 items of PSE scale, while in the second the adopted tool with 11 items was administered to a total of 360 participants in Mara, Mwanza, and Kagera regions. The Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was performed, which was later followed by the Monte Carlo Parallel analysis. Results indicate that the 11 items of the PSE were relevant in measuring farmers’ self-efficacy. Further, the moderate discriminant validity (r = 0.48), and good internal consistency (α = 0.85) of the adopted PSE were found. It was concluded that PSE is an effective instrument in assessing individual differences in perceived self-efficacy. The study recommends the adoption of PSE as an effective tool for measuring farmers’ self-efficacy.


farmers, self-efficacy scale, perceived self-efficacy, Tanzania

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