Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Access to Educational Publications and the Copyright Law in Tanzania: Revisiting the Underlying Opposing Interests

Saudin J. Mwakaje

Abstract

In Tanzania, the right to education is guaranteed under the Constitution. For such a right to be effective, easy access to educational publications is a key factor. However, these publications are a subject of copyright protection; hence users must obtain prior permission before use. The copyright law has provisions for free use or fair use, which is intended to allow certain prescribed uses without prior authorization of the author, such as use for educational purposes. In Tanzania, the enactment of the Copyright and Neighbouring Rights (Licensing of Reproduction and Rental Rights) Regulations in 2014 has presented a new legal dynamic by compelling all educational institutions to pay fees for the use of published materials. Educational institutions in the country are opposed to this obligation. Resolving this predicament requires a legal and regulatory review to assess the interplay between issues of access to education, and copyright protection to draw a balanced regulatory framework.

Keywords

Copyright law, access to published references, authors’ rights, fair use exception, policy, and regulatory options

Full Text:

PDF

References

African Union (AU). 1981. African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights. 1981. Retrieved November 11. 2019, from https: //www.achpr.org/legalinstruments/detail?id=49.

—. 1990. The African Charter of the Rights and Welfare of the Child, of 1990. Retrieved October 6. 2019, from https: //au.int/en/treaties/african-charter-rights-and-welfare-child.

Alberta (Education) v. Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency (Access Copyright). 2012 SCC 37 [Supreme Court of Canada].

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). 2012. ASEAN Human Rights Declaration, Jakarta. Indonesia. Retrieved October 18. 2019 from https://www.refworld.org/docid/50c9fea82.html.

Authors Guild Inc. v. Hathi Trust, 755 F. 3d 87 (Federal Court of U.S. A., 2nd Circuit. 2014).

Berger, G. 2009. Freedom of Expression, Access to Information and Empowerment of People (Ed.), Vienna: UNESCO Publication.

Bracha, O. 2018. The History of Intellectual Property Law – Volume 1, (Ed.). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Brazil. 1998. Law on Copyright and Neighboring Rights, No. 9610 of 1998.

Brown, A., S. Kheria, J. Cornwell, & M. Iljadica. 2018. Contemporary Intellectual Property: Law and Policy (5th Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Communications Commission of Kenya &5 Others v. Royal Media Services Limited & 5 Others, Supreme Court of Kenya, Petition No. 14 of 2014.

Cornish, W, D. Llewelyn & T. Aplin. 2013. Intellectual Property: Patents, Copyrights, Trade Marks and Allied Rights (8th Ed.). London: Sweet & Maxwell.

Cornish, W. 2002. The Author as Risk-Sharer, 26 Columbia J of L & the Arts 1.

—. 2006. Cases and Materials on Intellectual Property (5th Ed.). London: Sweet & Maxwell.

Davies, G. 2003. Copyright and the Public Interest (2nd Ed.). London: Sweet & Maxwell.

Drahos, P & J. Braithwaite. 2003. Information Feudalism: Who Owns the Knowledge Economy? London: Earthscan Publications Ltd.

Drahos, P & R. Mayne (ed.). 2002. Global Intellectual Property Rights: Knowledge Access and Development. London: Palgrave McMillan.

European Court of Justice. 2004. Lagardère Active Broadcast v Société pour la perception de la rémunération équitable (SPRE) and Gesellschaft zur Verwertung von Leistungsschutzrechten mbH (GVL), Case No. 192/04.

European Union (EU). 1953. European Convention on Human Rights of 1953, Retrieved November 10. 2019, from https: //www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf.

Feist Publications Inc. v. Rural Telephone Services Company Inc., 499 U.S. 340 [1991].

Fox, M., T. Ciro & N. Duncan. 2005. Creative Commons: An Alternative, Web-Based Copyright System, 16(6) Entertainment L. Rev, 111.

Frankel, S & D. Gervais. 2014. The Evolution and Equilibrium of Copyright in the Digital Age, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Retrieved March 8. 2020 from https: //assets. cambridge. org/97811070/62566/frontmatter/9781107062566_frontmatter.pdf.

Fraser-Woodward Ltd v. British Broadcasting Corporation Brighter Pictures Ltd [2005] EWHC 472.

Halabi, S. F. 2018. Intellectual Property and the New International Economic Order – Oligopoly, Regulation & Wealth Redistribution in the Global Knowledge Economy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Harvard University. 2019. The Complex Responsibilities of Librarians. 2019. Retrieved on April 20. 2020, from https: //cyber.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_7:_Enforcement#The_ Complex_ Responsibilities_of_Librarians. International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA). 2019, Development and Access to Information 2019. Retrieved April 22. 2020, from https: // da2i.ifla.org/wp-content/uploads/da2i-2019-full-report.pdf. —. 2020, Access and Opportunity for All: How Libraries contribute to the United Nations 2030 Agenda, Retrieved April 22. 2020, from https: //www.ifla.org/files/assets/hq/topics/libraries-development/ documents/access-and-opportunity-for-all.pdf .

India. 1957. The Copyright Act. No. 14 of 1957.

Kenya. 2010. The Constitution of Kenya, Nairobi, Republic of Kenya.

—. 2019. The Copyright (Amendment) Act of 2019. Nairobi, Republic of Kenya.

Lakhan S. E & M. K. Khurana. 2008. Intellectual Property, Copyright & Fair Use in Education. Journal of Academic Leadership, 6 (4), pp. 1-11.

Menell, P.S., M.A. Lemley, R. P. Merges. 2017. Intellectual Property in the New Technological Age: 2017, Vol. II: Copyrights, Trademarks & State of IP Protections. California: Clause 8 Publishing.

Monotti, A & S. Ricketson. 2003. Universities and Intellectual Property: Ownership and Exploitation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available at SSRN: https: //ssrn.com/abstract=1162437.

Moorhouse v. University of New South Wales, [1976] RPC 151.

Muffatto, M. 2006. Open Source: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Imperial College Press, ISBN 978-1-86094-665-3.

Netanel, N. W. 1996. Copyright in Democratic Civil Society, 106 Yale LR 283. Retrieved on March 14. 2020, from https: //digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https: //www. google.co.tz/&httpsredir=1&article=7715&context=ylj.

Newman, S.T.M. 2009. Human Rights and Copyrights: A Look at Practical Jurisprudence with Reference to Author’s Rights, 31(2) EIPR 88.

Ochoa, T. T. 2003. Origins and Meanings of the Public Domain, 28 U. Dayton L. Rev. 215.

Okediji, R. L. 2017. Copyright Law in an Age of Limitations and Exceptions, (Ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Olwan, R. M. 2013. Intellectual Property and Development –Theory and Practice, New York, Springer Heidelberg.

Pila, J. 2010. Who Owns the Intellectual Property Rights in Academic Work? EIPR 606.

Rader, R.R., T. Voit, K. Nagasawa, K. Kim & M. Wang (eds.), Policy and Monetization in Intellectual Property. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Republic of Venice, 1474, The Venetian Patent Statute of March 19, 1474.

Rwanda. 2003. The Constitution of Rwanda. Kigali, Republic of Rwanda.

Simone, D. 2019. Copyright and Collective Authorship: Locating the Authors of Collaborative Work, New York, Cambridge University Press.

Smith, H. E. 2009. Community and Customs in Property, 10(1) Theoretical Inquiries in L 5 -41.

Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA). 2002, Intellectual Property Policy. Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania. Retrieved September 16. 2019, from https: //www.dpd.sua. ac.tz/ index.php/policy/intellectual-property-rights-ipr-policy.

Tanzania Zanzibar. 2003, The Copyright Act, Act No. 14 of 2003. Zanzibar.

Tanzania. 1975. Tanzania Library Service Act, Cap. 102 [R.E. 2002]. Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

—. 1977. The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania. Cap. 2 [R.E. 2002]. Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

—. 1999. Copyright and Neighboring Rights Act, Cap 218 [R.E. 2002]. Dar es Salaam: United Republic of Tanzania.

—. 2014a. Education and Training Policy. Dar es Salaam: United Republic of Tanzania.

—. 2014b. Copyright and Neighbouring Rights (Licensing of Reproduction and Rental Rights) Regulations. G.N. No. 234 of 2014. Dar es Salaam: United Republic of Tanzania.

—. 2018. Copyright (Licensing of Reproduction and Rental Rights) (Amendment) Regulations, G. N. No. 668. Dar es Salaam: United Republic of Tanzania.

Tong, L. 2009. South African Supreme Court of Appeal Interprets ‘course of Employment’ for Copyright, 4 JIPLP 323. Torremans, P. 2015. Intellectual Property and Human Rights, (Ed.), Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International. Retrieved November 1. 2019, from https: //www. schoenherr.rs/ fileadmin/ content-rs/articles/pdf/Kluwer_016_Torremans_Andrea_Radonjanin.pdf.

Tozzi, C. 2017. For Fun and Profit: History of Free and Open Source Software Revolution. Boston: The MIT Press.

Tyler, T. 1996. Compliance with Intellectual Property Law: A Psychological Perspective, International L and Politics 29: 219 - 36.

Tyler, T. & Jackson, J. 2014. Popular Legitimacy and Exercise of Legal Authority: Motivating Compliance, Cooperation and Engagement. 20(1) Psychology Public Policy and L, p. 78. United Kingdom (UK). 1710, Copyright Act (The Statute of Anne), (8 Ann. c. 21).

—. 2005. Copyright (Educational Establishments) Order (SI 2005/223), UK’s Intellectual Property Office Order on applicability of copyright law to educational institutions retrieved October 29. 2019from: http: //www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2005/223/made.

—. 2012. Modernizing Copyright: A Modern, Robust and Flexible Framework. UK’s Intellectual Property Office response to consultation on copyright exceptions and clarifying Copyright Law retrieved October 29. 2019 from: https: //www.mpaonline.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/ 2017/ 09/ Modernising _Copyright_-_a_modern_robust_and_flexible_framework_Government_response.pdf.

—. 2014a. Exceptions to Copyright: Education and Teaching. UK’s Intellectual Property Office guidance on applicability of copyright exceptions in the context of education and teaching, retrieved October 29. 2019 from: http: //data.parliament.uk/DepositedPapers/Files/DEP2014-0529/ Exceptions_to_copyright_-_Education_and_Teaching.pdf.

—. 2014b. Exceptions to Copyright, Libraries, Archives and Museums, UK’s Intellectual Property Office Guide on applicability of copyright exceptions in the context of Libraries and Museums, retrieved October 29. 2019 from: https: //assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/ uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/375956/Libraries_Archives_and_Museums.pdf.

United States of America (USA). 1788. The Constitution of the United States of America, Washington D.C. —. 1976, US Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. § 107.

Uganda. 1995. The Constitution of Republic of Uganda. Kampala: Republic of Uganda.

—. 2006. Copyright and Neighboring Rights Act, Kampala, Republic of Uganda.

United Nations (UN). 1948. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. United Nations General Assembly 217 (III), A. 1948. Retrieved October 6. 2019 from: https: //www.un.org/en/udhrbook/pdf/ udhr_booklet_ en_web.pdf.

—. 1966, International Covenant for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. United Nations General Assembly. Retrieved October 6. 2019 from https: //www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/ Pages/CESCR.aspx.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 2019. Copyright Bulletin 2019. Retrieved November 18. 2019 from http: //www. unesco. org/new/en/member-states/single-view/news/unescos_copyright_bulletin_ now_has_ own_website/.

Universities UK v. Copyright Licensing Agency [2002] RPC 36.

University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM). 2008. UDSM Intellectual Property Policy. Retrieved September 12. 2019 from: https: //docplayer.net/80884612-Udsm-intellectual-property-policy.html.

Vaver, D. 2002. Principles of Copyright: Cases and Materials, Geneva: WIPO Publication No. 844.

Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc. v. RDR Books, 575 F.Supp.2d 513 (S.D. N.Y. 2008).

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). 1886. Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, Retrieved January 17. 2020, from https: //www.wipo.int/edocs/ lexdocs/ treaties/en/berne/trt_berne_001en.pdf .

—. 1996. The WIPO Copyright Treaty, TRT/WCT/001. Retrieved October 26. 2019 from: https: //wipolex.wipo.int/en/treaties/textdetails/12740.

—. 2013. Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled, Retrieved April 17. 2020 from: https: //www.aripo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Marrakesh-Treaty.pdf.

—. 2018, Proposal for a Pilot Project on Copyright and the Distribution of Content in the Digital Environment, CDIP/22/15. 2018. Retrieved October 10. 2019 from: https: //www.wipo.int/ meetings/ en/ doc_details.jsp?doc_id=418449.

World Trade Organisation (WTO). 1994. Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement). Retrieved on March 14. 2020, from https: //www.wto.org/ english/ docs_e/legal_e/27-trips.pdf.

Zimmerman, D. 2011. “Copyright as Incentives: Did we Just Imagine That?” 12(1) Theoretical Inquiries in L 29. Retrieved January 28. 2020, from https: //www7.tau.ac.il/ojs/ index.php/ til/article/view/766.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.